Dpt Student Self-Efficacy on Psychomotor Skill Performance: A Comparison of Hybrid and Traditional Learning Models
Purpose: Development of alternative delivery models in physical therapy education has resulted in a gap in evidence regarding the efficacy of traditional on-campus learning models compared to blended/hybrid learning models. This gap is especially important for understanding how students gain competence and confidence for skills in the psychomotor domain. The purpose of this mixed methods study is to compare hybrid and traditional student self-efficacy on psychomotor skill performance at two points in the curriculum. Methods/Description: Students enrolled in a required ‘Basics of Patient Management’ course through either the traditional or hybrid model curriculum of an accredited physical therapy program. Mastery learning experiences for psychomotor skills (physical therapy assessment, interventions, and movement skills) were embedded into the course curriculum using two distinct models. Students enrolled in the traditional model experienced weekly, on-campus laboratory sessions for demonstration and practice, culminating in a practical exam. Students enrolled in the hybrid model completed weekly self-paced learning units that included demonstration of skills in video format, attended weekly synchronous streaming video sessions with faculty for skills discussion and further demonstration, submitted self-performance videos of select psychomotor skills for faculty review, and attended an on-campus immersion experience for in-person feedback and practice, culminating in a practical exam. Students participating in each curriculum model were invited to complete a 19 question survey addressing their self-efficacy beliefs for psychomotor skills (assessment, intervention, and movement skills). Respondents indicated their level of agreement to each statement. A survey link was emailed to students (traditional: n=98, hybrid: n=46) at two different time points. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. Time point 1 preceded the first practical exam for both groups of students; traditional, 1-2 days prior to the exam and hybrid, 1-2 days prior to a 7-day immersion that culminated in the exam. Time point 2 was in the days immediately following the first practical exam for both groups of students. In addition to the quantitative likert-type survey questions, students were invited to comment in an open response area. A qualitative assessment of open responses was performed in aggregate and for each individual time point and model. Data was analyzed by comparing the percentage of coded comments per learning model and time point. Analysis of responses was multi-step including individual author analysis and consensus agreement in an inductive analysis process. Results/Outcomes: Ninety-eight students were enrolled in the traditional model (64% female; 12.1% under-represented minority; mean age 25.0±3.0 years; 100% live driving distance to campus) and 46 students were enrolled in the hybrid model (48% female; 20% under-represented minority; mean age 26.7±.4.3 years; 37% live driving distance to campus). Survey response rates for students in the traditional model were 35.7% for time point 1 and 29.6% for time point 2. Response rates for students in the hybrid model were 69.6% and 65.2% for the same time points. There were no significant differences between the traditional and hybrid students’ self-efficacy beliefs on each question of psychomotor skills at time point 1. At time point 2, both groups experienced significant improvement (p < 0.01) in self-efficacy of psychomotor skills except for belief in the ability to effectively facilitate movement (p = 0.160). At time point 2, there were no significant differences between the traditional and hybrid students’ self-efficacy beliefs on each question of psychomotor skills. Qualitative analysis of open responses were grouped into 4 themes (self-efficacy, ownership, feedback, and practice). Across both time points and both groups, the majority of the open-ended comments centered on the themes of self-efficacy and ownership. There was a trend within the comments related to the theme of feedback for the students in the hybrid model and the theme of practice for students in the traditional model. Conclusions/Relevance to the conference theme: Findings from this study revealed DPT students from a traditional model and hybrid model of learning demonstrated similar levels of self-efficacy for physical therapy psychomotor skills of assessment, interventions, and movement across two points in the curriculum. Findings also demonstrate significant improvement in students’ self-efficacy for psychomotor skills following summative assessments in each learning model. Qualitative analysis of written remarks demonstrated similarity related to self-efficacy and ownership regardless of the learning model. Little is known about physical therapist students' self-efficacy of psychomotor skills and the impact of various mastery learning experiences on those beliefs. This study demonstrated that DPT students from both traditional and hybrid models of learning can attain comparable levels of self-efficacy for physical therapy psychomotor skills of assessment, intervention and movement. This data may assist curriculum planning for hybrid/blended learning models.