JOPTE

The Journal of Physical Therapy Education (JOPTE) is peer reviewed and published four times each year by theEducation Section of the American Physical Therapy Association. The Journal is indexed by Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature and in Physiotherapy Indexditor:

Editors:
Kevin Brueilly, PT, PhD, MPT
Susan Wainwright, PT, PhD 

2017 Volume 31 - Number 3

Editorial: Continuing Contributions
by Jan Gwyer, PT, PhD, FAPTA, and Laurita Hack, PT, DPT, PhD, MBA, FAPTA
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As we look back on our 7 years of service as co-editors of the Journal of Physical Therapy Education, we recall the amazing collaborators who have shared our journey:
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Editorial: Continued Growth for the Journal: Collaboration is the Key
by Jan Gwyer, PT, PhD, FAPTA, and Laurita Hack, PT, DPT, PhD, MBA, FAPTA
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Aren’t we lucky that we get to do both – make a living and make a difference? This issue, as do so many of them, reflects all the ways we work to make a difference in physical therapy education.
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Editorial: Looking Forward
by Kevin E. Brueilly, PT, PhD, and Susan F. Wainwright, PT, PhD
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As new co-editors of the Journal of Physical Therapy Education (the Journal), we recently described the next 3 years ahead as being both exciting and frightening. Exciting, in that we both anticipate the opportunities that we have yet to experience in steering the Journal into the next decade as we work to advance the scholarship of physical therapy education in all dimensions.
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Letter to the Editor: To the Physical Therapy Education Community
by Donna L. Applebaum, PT, DPT, MS
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I’m writing as a longstanding member of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), a member of the Education Section, a member of the Clinical Education Special Interest Group (CESIG) over many years, a faculty member and director of clinical education (DCE) in an American Council of Academic Physical Therapy (ACAPT) member institution, and as the chairperson of the ACAPT National Consortium of Clinical Educators (NCCE).
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20th Pauline Cerasoli Lecture: The Sunk Cost Fallacy
by Chad Cook, PhD, PT, MBA
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I was truly honored to have the opportunity to provide the 2017 Pauline Cerasoli lecture. I must first thank the late Dr Cerasoli for her notable contributions to our profession. I must also thank those who nominated me, the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) Education Section for thinking outside the box and selecting me, and all of my mentors, students, and academic organizations (Texas Tech University, Walsh University, and Duke University) with which I’ve been affiliated for shaping me the way I am today.
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The Early Assurance Program Model for Physical Therapy Education
by Julia Chevan, PT, PhD, MPH, OCS, Mark Reinking, PT, PhD, SCS, ATC, and Maura Daly Iversen, PT, DPT, SD, MPH, FNAP, FAPTA
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Background and Purpose. Early assurance programs for entry-level education of physical therapists (PTs) have existed since academic programs of study were initiated in physical therapy at the college and university level. These programs provide a unique approach to student education that incorporates a bachelor’s and a doctoral degree into a single seamless educational experience. This article describes the early assurance model in physical therapy education and aims to demonstrate the advantages of this model using Astin’s Inputs-Environment-Outputs (I-E-O) framework.
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Commentary on The Early Assurance Program Model for Physical Therapy Education
by Diane U. Jette, PT, DPT, DSc, FAPTA
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I read with interest the position paper on early assurance physical therapist (PT) education programs, and I appreciated the authors’ use of the I-E-O framework for identifying and classifying the important elements in evaluating this educational enterprise.
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Commentary Response
by Julia Chevan, PT, PhD, MPH, OCS, Mark Reinking, PT, PhD, SCS, ATC, and Maura Daly Iversen, PT, DPT, SD, MPH, FNAP, FAPTA
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We appreciate the thoughtful commentary Dr Jette has provided about our position paper. Identification of the best practices to validate models of physical therapist (PT) education can be challenging. Our aim was to validate outcomes of early assurance PT programs using the best available evidence. A major challenge with this approach is the inability to acquire a uniform level of detail on programs, whether the programs are early assurance or traditional entry programs, due to the proprietary nature of the data.
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To Treat or Not to Treat: The Use of Computer Assisted Learning to Enhance Clinical Decision Making and Self-Efficacy of Student Physical Therapists in the Acute Care Setting
by Ellen Costello, PT, PhD, Elizabeth Ruckert, PT, DPT, NCS, GCS, Laurie Lyons, MA, Linda Cotton, MA, and Marisa Birkmeier PT, DPT, PCS
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Background. The acute care environment has become increasingly complex, raising practice expectations for student physical therapists (PTs) during clinical internships. Computer assisted learning (CAL) has gained popularity as an innovative method to teach and learn; however, there is little research to support its use to improve student preparedness to practice in a particular setting. The purpose of the study is to determine if integrating CAL modules into a PT educational curriculum will improve students’ clinical decision making and self-efficacy to practice in the acute care environment.
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Exploring DPT Students’ Perceptions of Team Function in a Collaborative Integrated Clinical Education Experience
by Kyle Covington, PT, DPT, PhD, Katherine Myers, PT, DPT, and Jennifer Rodriguez, PT, MHS
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Introduction. Integrated clinical education (ICE), defined as clinical learning experiences embedded within the didactic portion of a DPT curriculum, is an integral component of an overall clinical education curriculum. The collaborative supervisory model has been applied to ICE experiences in DPT curricula. Two physical therapist (PT) education programs developed similar ICE experiences incorporating the collaborative model as a component of their clinical education curricula. Benefits for student learning have been described in the literature for both of these models—in isolation, but not combined. The purpose of this study was to determine factors that students felt contributed to successful team function in a collaborative ICE experience.
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Experiences of Students, Teachers, and Physical Therapists From Blind People’s Association in Ahmedabad, India: A Qualitative Study
by Carolyn P. Da Silva, PT, DSc, NCS, Abhinit Bhatt, PT, DPT, Elizabeth Brooke Avant, PT, DPT, Radha Thakorbhai Morar, PT, DPT, Saida Ebrahim, PT, DPT, Rupal Patel, PT, PhD
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Background and Purpose. Students who are blind or visually impaired (BVI) have been trained as physical therapists (PTs) since the early 1900s in the United Kingdom, but there are no known institutions available for these individuals to pursue physical therapy in the United States (US). The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of PTs and physical therapy students with BVI, and teachers with and without BVI at Blind People’s Association (BPA) in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
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Physical Therapist Students’ Conceptualizations of Clinical Practice
by Sarah J. Gilliland, PT, DPT, PhD, CSCS, and Susan Flannery Wainwright, PT, PhD
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Introduction. Patient-centered collaborative reasoning is a hallmark of expert practice in physical therapy that is not consistently demonstrated in the work of novices. Current theories suggest that professional competence extends beyond skills and knowledge to also include an individual’s conceptions of the role and identity of the professional, though few studies have addressed physical therapist (PT) student professional development from this perspective. The purpose of this study was to examine the ways PT students conceptualize the practice of physical therapy.
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The Design and Evaluation of Worked Examples in Neurological Physical Therapy Education
by Patricia J. Manns, Amanda Matton, and Alyson Kwok
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Background and Purpose. Learning and practising clinical reasoning related to patient cases is a standard part of physical therapist (PT) education. Research in the area of example-based learning provides evidence and structure for the development of learning modules related to patient cases. The purpose of this project was to develop and evaluate 2 e-learning modules that explicitly incorporated principles of example-based learning (worked example, observational learning, and analogical reasoning).
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Utilizing a Curriculum Development Process to Design and Implement a New Integrated Clinical Education Experience
by Katherine Myers, PT, DPT, and Margaret Schenkman, PT, PhD, FAPTA
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Background and Purpose. Intentional curriculum development processes have been described in the literature but application of such processes has not been described specific to the clinical education (CE) component of a doctor of physical therapy (DPT) curriculum. The article describes one DPT program’s application of David Kern’s Six-Step curriculum development approach to the creation of a unique integrated clinical education (ICE) curriculum. The development of the ICE curriculum, a component of a larger curriculum revision of the DPT program, began in 2010. The details of Kern’s steps are provided and their application to the development of the new ICE curriculum is described.
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Impact of Virtual Simulation on the Interprofessional Communication Skills of Physical Therapy Students: A Pilot Study
by Matthew S. Taylor, PhD, Jennifer Tucker, PT, DPT, PCS, Claire Donehower, PhD, BCBA, Patrick Pabian, PT, DPT, SCS, OCS, Lisa A. Dieker, PhD, Michael C. Hynes, PhD, and Charles Hughes
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Background and Purpose. Interprofessional education (IPE) is a part of the Standards of the Commission on Accreditation of Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE). CAPTE emphasizes that all physical therapy students be prepared to interact and communicate with those outside of their field of expertise to address and articulate patient needs. A vital component of patient care is the ability to communicate with other professionals, family members, and caregivers regarding a patient, student, or child.
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Student and Examiner Perceptions of an Innovative Model for Assessment of Neuromuscular Clinical Competence in a Professional Physical Therapist Education Program
by Niamh Tunney, PT, DPT, MS, and Ellen Perlow, PT, DPT
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Background and Purpose. Assessment of clinical skills is required in physical therapist (PT) education. It can be labor and cost intensive, and put significant demand on faculty time and resources. Currently there is no standard protocol for assessing clinical performance in the didactic portion of a physical therapy curriculum. The purposes of this study are to present an innovative model for assessment of the clinical competence of PT students managing patients with neurologic conditions that is time, labor, and cost effective, and to explore the perceptions of PT students and examiners relating to the innovative model.
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A New Home for Academic Physical Therapy: ACAPT’s First 7 Years
by Susan S. Deusinger, PT, PhD, FAPTA, and Barbara Sanders, PT, PhD, SCS, FAPTA
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Background and Purpose. The American Council of Academic Physical Therapy (ACAPT) emerged in 2011 as a new entity in the American Physical Therapy (APTA). Since then, ACAPT has been dedicated to enhancing the impact of the academic enterprise in physical therapy as it pursues visions for excellence in education, research, and practice. To frame the context for change in which ACAPT emerged, this position paper briefly traces the history of its 2 organizational precursors. Then, key actions taken in ACAPT’s first 7 years are presented as a record of how this new organization has responded to the challenges of a profession in change.
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A Survey of Pediatric Clinical Education in Physical Therapist Professional Education
by Lisa K. Kenyon, PT, DPT, PhD, PCS, Deborah K. Anderson, PT, EdD, PCS, and Jody S. Frost, PT, DPT, PhD, FNAP
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Introduction. Research pertaining to the clinical education component of pediatric curricula within physical therapist (PT) education programs is limited. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the current state of pediatric clinical education in professional PT education programs within the United States with respect to the (1) number and types of pediatric clinical education sites; (2) timing of pediatric clinical education experiences; (3) the availability of pediatric clinical education experiences; and (4) issues affecting pediatric clinical education.
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Enhancing Student Interprofessional Teamwork and Collaboration through Pediatric Therapy Learning Experiences
by Cheryl I. Kerfeld, PT, PhD, Jennifer S. Pitonyak, PhD, OTR/L, SCFES, and Tracy Jirikowic, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA
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Background and Purpose. Interprofessional education (IPE) is learning that engages students of 2 or more health professions with the intent of improving collaboration and service delivery. We examined the relationships between interprofessional graduate pediatric therapy education and student learning outcomes after 4 interprofessional learning experiences completed in combined classes within entry-level physical therapist (PT) and occupational therapist (OT) professional programs.
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Early Pediatric Clinical Rotations: Strategies for Success
by Kathy Martin, PT, DHSc, Renée Van Veld, PT, MS, and Barbara Kindred, PT
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Background and Purpose. The Academy of Pediatric Physical Therapy (APPT) has developed several documents to provide guidance for pediatric physical therapist (PT) education. However, considerable variation among professional programs still exists along with general concern regarding adequacy of pediatric clinical experiences. The aim of this manuscript was to describe a model of full-time early clinical experiences in pediatric physical therapy. In addition, the application of the APPT’s Essential Core Competencies to plan learning experiences and behavioral objectives will be explored.
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Description and Outcomes of a Practicum Model for Experiential Learning in Pediatrics
by Victoria A Moerchen, PT, PhD, Margaret Dietrich, DPT, PCS, and Ann Dietrich, PT, MS
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Background and Purpose. Experiential learning has recently been proposed as essential to pediatric physical therapist (PT) education, but the paucity of evidence for models of experiential learning in physical therapy challenges pediatric educators’ ability to respond to this proposal. The purpose of this methods report is to describe the design and outcomes of a short embedded pediatric practicum model that achieves the cognitive-affective processes of experiential learning.
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SOLO-Framed Flipped Learning Environment: “Speaking the Language of Today’s Learner”
by Genevieve Pinto Zipp, PT, EdD, Catherine Maher, PT, DPT, GCS, and Valerie Olson, PT, PhD
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Background/Purpose. Based upon the evidence documented in educational research literature and the needs of today’s technologically engaged students, learning environments have transitioned from being teacher-focused to student-focused. With this movement toward a studentfocused learning environment, various teaching strategies (eg, webinars, videos, cases, mind mapping, and concept mapping) have been introduced into the classroom. Recently, the notion of creating a “flipped classroom” has emerged in the literature. Flipped classrooms use videobased recording technology to capture faculty lectures, which are then posted online for student access. In the flipped classroom model, the placement of lectures online is only 1 part of the learning environment. To develop students as active critical thinkers, the learning environment includes in and out-of-class experiences to engage students and maximize active learning opportunities.
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